Types of Construction Heavy EquipmentsArticles > Types of Construction Heavy Equipments
As times are changing, construction equipment is also evolving. Earlier one construction equipment was used for only one job but now several jobs can be done with one construction equipment. A variety of construction equipment has facilitated doing complex jobs with the utmost ease. The choice of equipment depends on the project’s requirements. It is up to the civil engineer to use suitable equipment for the right purpose. For every construction, there is an ideal combination of equipment and labor. Depending on the type and nature of the works, the technical staff which is hired for the construction activity needs to know which tools are required to use and how to productively combine them with manual labor.
Trained staff are required to operate this heavy machinery with precision as slight mistakes can cost a loss of life as well as property and money. When equipment is faulty then there will be delays in construction activities which will hamper time and money. Hence, it is the responsibility of the management team to look after the construction activity starting from labor to equipment without any delay.
Some of these heavy construction equipment is -
Excavators - These are construction equipment that is used for excavating purposes like digging trenches, excavating earth soil for laying a foundation, forest works, uprooting trees, demolition, mining, dredging and so on. Its parts consist of boom, bucket, stick and cab. The cab is capable of rotating at 360 degrees. It is perfect for medium to heavy jobs.
Fig 1: Excavators
Loaders - It is heavy equipment that is used for moving aside the particles like debris, dirt, gravel, snow, etc. into or onto another type of equipment such as a dump truck, conveyor belt or feed-hopper. Its types are Tracks, Bucket Loader, Front Loader, Front-end Loader, Payloader, Scoop, Shovel, Skip Loader, Wheel Loader, Skid-steer, Tractor Front Loader, Compact Front End Loader, Swing Loader.
Fig 2: Loader
Dredging Equipment - The choice of using this type of heavy equipment for executing a dredging operation depends on conditions such as the weather, accessibility to the site and wave conditions, anchoring conditions, required accuracy and many more. They can operate hydraulically or mechanically. Hydraulic digging involves using the working of a water flow that is erosive. It is frequently conducted in cohesionless soils such as silt, sand and gravel. Whereas mechanical digging by teeth or cutting edges of dredging equipment or knives is frequently conducted in cohesive soils.
Fig 3: Dredging Equipment
COURTESY: DREDGE AMERICA
Conveying Equipment - Such equipment carries material in a continuous stream with its distinct features such as an endless belt or chain. They are used for transporting material from one place to another over a stationary structure. They can proceed to work horizontally, vertically or in an inclined position. They are used in the mining and construction industries.
Fig 4: Conveyor
Compacting Equipment - They can be of a type such as smooth-wheel rollers, sheep-foot rollers and pneumatic type rollers. Such equipment is used to expel air from a soil mass so as to achieve a high density. Smooth-wheel rollers are suitable for gravel and sand. Pneumatic-tired rollers are good for compaction of clays with very high moisture content. And sheepsfoot rollers are suitable for clays with low moisture content.
Fig 5: Sheep foot roller
Pumping Equipment - Pumping equipment is used to remove water from a volume of liquid, solid material or soil. Pumps remove liquid from a volume of liquid. These equipment can be utilised for keeping water out of foundations in case of rain, pits, tunnels, and other excavations and many more.
Fig 6: Pumping Equipment
COURTESY: CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
Pile Driving Equipment - Such equipment units involve lifting the piles from the ground while taking them into position to a specified depth. Here driving is accomplished by hammering on the pile top. Equipment is designed so as to remain economical while driving. Major piles of driving equipment include piles of driving rigs and piles of driving hammers.
Fig 7: Pile Driver
COURTESY: DESIGNING BUILDINGS WIKI
Material Testing Equipment- It is very often used in the quality control processes which are asoociated to the analysis of soil, concrete, asphalt, bitumen, cement, mortar, steel, aggregates, and other materials used in construction. The mechanism by which this equipment performs analysis varies in accordance to the material to be analysed. These instruments for testing are capable of analysing the moisture content, permeability, toughness, hardness, abrasion and other mechanical properties.
Fig 8: Material Testing Equipment
COURTESY: SUN LAB TEK EQUIPMENTS
HMA Production Equipment - HMA is produced in a plant that takes into account the proportions, blends, heat aggregates and asphalt needed to produce an HMA. These are two basic types... the batch plant, and the drum plant. Batch plants lead to the production of HMA in individual batches while drum plants lead to the production of HMA in a continuous operation.
Fig 9: Asphalt mixing, HMA Equipment
Innovations are being carried out to minimise the use of equipment for several jobs. The economy is one such important criterion that is looked upon mostly in construction activities and by minimising equipment for several jobs, this can be achieved. Apart from this, many companies are approaching achieving sustainable goals by using cost-effective methods. Also, emission of harmful gases like carbon dioxide is being tried to reduce such heavy equipment by using biofuel that is safe for the environment. Hence, the field of construction is undergoing revolutionary changes and in a few years it can be expected to achieve great success.
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