15 Earth Moving Equipments used in Civil Engineering

Articles > 15 Earth Moving Equipments used in Civil Engineering

Earth Moving Equipments used in Civil Engineering:

The use of machinery and equipment is in modern construction and civil engineering is inevitable. The work of gigantic bridges, dams, and multi-floor buildings is impossible without using mechanical and electrical equipment. In civil engineering, all the equipment are classified into four categories:

a.The Earth Moving Equipments (used to move the earthen material from one place to another)

b. The Construction Vehicles (used in process of construction of structure)

c. Material Handling Equipment (Used to handle, manage and fix the construction material)

d. The Construction Equipments (Used in the process of construction)

In this article, our discussion will remain confined to the Earth Moving Equipments. In another word, the civil engineering/ construction equipment which moves the earthen material from one place to another. The following are the most important and very common equipment used in moving the earthen material for carrying out the construction work in an adequate manner. These equipment are as under:

(1). Bulldozers:

Bulldozers are earth-moving machine, which runs on metallic tires or chain. A bulldozer has a substantial steel plate, which pushes and moves the material. This is an advanced form of a tractor. The front steel plate (commonly known as a blade) pushes the bulk and move earthen material. It can push large bulks of soil, sand, snow, and rubble.

(2). Dragline Excavators:

A dragline excavator is a masterpiece of heavy equipment used in civil and mining engineering. A dragline excavator has a long lifting crane with a dragline bucket and a winch. The winch controls the dragline bucket with several drag-ropes and hoist cables. It is used to work at a site from a distant place.

(3). Graders:

The grader has a rubber tire and a central grading blade. The purpose of the grader is to grade the uneven surface to plane it. The grading blade has been installed in the center and middle of the front and rear tires. This mechanism levels the surface without using any manual skill.

(4). Wheel Tractor Scraper:

It is also known as belly scraper. It is used to move earthen material like soil and rock debris. The rear bed of a wheel tractor scraper has a vertically moveable hopper with a sharp edge. The moveable hopper grinds the earth material, and the cut material is picked and dumped in the belly or chamber. Each time when the belly of the wheel scraper is filled, It is unloaded at one side of the road, and again the process of cutting and smoothing the surface is started.

(5). Loader:

A loader is a heavy machine used in the construction of roads, dams, and buildings. The function of the loader is to shift/ transfer the soil, debris, stone gravel, murrum from one place to another. It also loads the dumper. It also dumps the excavated material.

 (6). Crawler Loader:

The purpose of a crawler loader is the same as that of a common loader or a skid loader. The difference is, it has metallic tires or chain of steel, instead of pneumatic tires. The chain and metallic tires give extra surface grip and friction.

(7). Wheeled Loading Shovels:

Like other loading machines, the purpose of the wheeled loading shovels is to load the dumpers or low lying surfaces of the land. It has pneumatic rubber wheels/ tires.

(8). Scrapers:

Like a tractor wheel scraper, the function of a common scraper is to cut the uneven surface of the earth and level it. The scraps of the cut soil is dumped aside by means of a plane belt.

(9). Excavator:

The excavator is used to dig and excavate the soil and rocks. A common excavator has a dipper, bucket, boom, and a cab. The operator sits in the cab, and digs out the soil with the help dipper and fills its bucket, and shift material poured into the bucket with the help of boom (the moving arm). With the help of a boom, it empties its bucket into the dumper.

(10). Dragline Excavator:

A dragline excavator is a masterpiece of heavy equipment used in civil and mining engineering. A dragline excavator has a long lifting crane with a dragline bucket and a winch. The winch controls the dragline bucket with several drag-ropes and hoist cables. It is used to work at a site from a distant place.

(11). Trencher:

A trencher is a piece of construction machine, which is used to dig the trenches. Its mechanism resembles that of a chain saw. It consists of several types of teeth, a running belt, and a soil dragger. The dragger may be of chain form and screw dragger. The function of the dragger is to remove the excavated soil from the trench and to throw it at the sides of the trench.

(12). Skid Loader (Skid Steel Loader/ Skidsteer):

It is small in size but has a very rigid frame a powerful engine. It is used to load stones and soil and saves labor work and cost.

 (13). Dumper:

A dumper is a transporting machine, which is loaded by other loading machines like loaders, skid loaders, and excavators. It transports the soil and rocks and dumps them at a required site. Dumber has a hydraulic pump system, which helps unload the dumper.

 

 

(14). Backhoe:

It is a very advance and important equipment used in construction works. It is also called a “rear actor” or “back actor”. It is a type of excavating and digging equipment. It has a digging bucket on the backside. It has a front loader and a backhoe bucket in the backside. The backhoe bucket is supported with two stabilizer legs. The stabilizer legs help the tractor stand stabilized while digging or loading the soil.

(15). Wheel Tractor Scraper:

It is also known as belly scraper. It is used to move earthen material like soil and rock debris. Its rear bed has a vertically moveable hopper with a sharp edge. The moveable hopper grinds the earth material, and the cut material is picked and dumped in the belly or chamber. Each time when the belly of the wheel scraper is filled, It is unloaded at one side of the road, and again the process of cutting and smoothing the surface is started.

 

 


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