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Types of Construction Equipment.
A paver is a heavy machine used widely in civil engineering. It is used to lay the asphalt, bitumen, and concrete on the roads and bridges. The use of a paver is to save a lot of labor work and provides clean finishing to the laid material.
TBM stands for Tunnel Boring Machines. It is a very huge gigantic sized machine, which has around moving circumference with sharp edges. The round structure of the machine rotates on its own axis with high power and potential. The sharp edges cut the scraps of the rock, thus make a wide and round hole. This round hole is then paved from the insides. It is known as a tunnel.
Rollers are used in paving and compacting the earthen and bituminous road. Rollers are of two types. One is a Cylindrical Roller and the other is Pneumatic Tire Roller with a Cylinder Roller. The capacity of a roller is 10-12 tones. A pneumatic tired roller, which has an efficiency of 15-30 tones, exerts a pressure of 7 kg per sq. cm. The rollers are run to and fro very frequently in order to compress the bituminous mix. Water drops are poured on the bituminous mix in order to avoid sticking it with the rolling cylinders of the roller.
A compactor is similar to a roller. The difference is the cylinder of the compactor is not smooth like that of a roller. The cylinder of the compactor has several protruded studs all around its circumference. Another difference between the compactor and roller is, a compactor vibrates and strikes the surface by means of vibration of low frequency. The cylinder of the compactor hits the surface like a hammer. The continuous hammering of the compactor compacts the earth's surface. The rear tires of the compactor are rubber pneumatic tires.
(5). Mixture Machine:
The mixture machine is used to mix the concrete, clay, or bituminous material. The sole purpose of the mixture machine is to mix evenly the material put into it.
The drillers or drilling machines are used to make a round hole in the earth's surface. The round hole is either made for the blasting and breaking the rocks or installing a rig to suck water or other liquid like crude oil etc.
(7). Tower Crane:
The tower crane often rises hundreds of feet high. The civil engineers and constructors use such type of cranes to lift the steel, concrete, and other large-sized material to higher latitude.
Like a dumper the function of a tripper is, too, to transport the load from one side of engineering to another. The difference is, the tripper has hydraulic pumps, which push its container up from the front side, and unloads it by itself. Trippers are frequently used in the contracts of civil construction, because of their fragility and power. They save much time and labor cost.
Trailers are big containers made up of metal, plastic, or wood. Trailers are laden on the long vehicles to transport the goods from one site to another.
A tanker is a round tank fitted on the chassis of a vehicle. It is used to transport the liquid from one place to another. A tanker is so designed that the movement of liquid inside the tanker does not shake or move the vehicle.
A crane has a long extended arm with a lifter or lifting bucket. The purpose of the crane is to lift the material from a distant site.
A conveyor is a frame supported by wheels or rollers. It helps easily shift very heavy material from one place to another.
It’s a device suspended with a tripod or some other high structure. It lifts as well as lowers down the heavy material with the help of a lift wheel or drum, around which the rope or the chain has been wrapped up. Advanced hoists have a gear system to convert the mechanical rpm of the hoist into power. The gear system helps easily lift very high substance with very low energy.
A forklift is used in construction as well in industries. It is used to lift heavy goods to and shift or load them on a truck. These are small but heavy machines with pneumatic tires. It has two extended fork-like arms from the front side. The forks are placed underneath the goods or heavy material and lifted with the help of lifting gear. After lifting the material, it starts moving just like other vehicles, and it puts the carried object at the required site.
(15). Road Headers:
A road header also knows as a boom-type road here or simply known as a header. It has two boom-type rotating heads with cutting edges. These heads, when move, cuts into the caverns. A road header is used in tunnel building, by cutting the rocks and making way through the rocks.
Earth Moving Equipments used in Civil Engineering:
The use of machinery and equipment is in modern construction and civil engineering is inevitable. The work of gigantic bridges, dams, and multi-floor buildings is impossible without using mechanical and electrical equipment. In civil engineering, all the equipment are classified into four categories:
a.The Earth Moving Equipments (used to move the earthen material from one place to another)
b. The Construction Vehicles (used in process of construction of structure)
c. Material Handling Equipment (Used to handle, manage and fix the construction material)
d. The Construction Equipments (Used in the process of construction)
In this article, our discussion is confined to the Construction Equipments. However, mentioning the names of the Earth moving material is inevitable due to their basic importance. Detail of them has been given in the previous article.
Bulldozers are earth-moving machine, which runs on metallic tires or chain.
(2). Dragline Excavators:
A dragline excavator is used in civil and mining engineering.
The purpose of the grader is to grade the uneven surface to plane it.
(4). Wheel Tractor Scraper:
It is used to move earthen material like soil and rock debris.
The function of the loader is to shift/ transfer the soil, debris, stone gravel, murrum from one place to another.
(6). Crawler Loader:
The purpose of a crawler loader is the same as that of a common loader or a skid loader.
(7). Wheeled Loading Shovels:
Like other loading machines, the purpose of the wheeled loading shovels is to load the dumpers or low lying surfaces of the land. It has pneumatic rubber wheels/ tires.
The function of a common scraper is to cut the uneven surface of the earth and level it.
The excavator is used to dig and excavate the soil and rocks
(10). Dragline Excavator:
A dragline excavator has a long lifting crane with a dragline bucket and a winch. It is used to work at a site from a distant place.
A trencher is a piece of construction machine, which is used to dig the trenches.
(12). Skid Loader (Skid Steel Loader/ Skidsteer):
It is used to load stones and soil and saves labor work and cost.
A dumper is a transporting machine, which is loaded by other loading machines like loaders, skid loaders, and excavators.
- Types of Construction Heavy Equipments
- 15 Earth Moving Equipments used in Civil Engineering
- Construction Site Layout Planning Elements
- Advantages and Limitations of Soil Nailing
- Construction Sequence of a Soil Nail Wall