Pyramids of EgyptArticles > Pyramids of Egypt
Pyramids of Egypt:
The Egyptian Pyramids are a landmark of stone architecture. These are found in Egypt, Africa. To date the estimated number of these structures is 118 to 138. Most of the Pyramids were built as a burial place for the Egyptian Pharaohs. The body of each Pharaoh, when he died, was kept under a huge pyramid structure. The pyramids were built to preserve the king's body. The first pyramids are located at the Saqqara Site, in the Northwestern region of Memphis. A pyramid-like structure was found in Saqqara, Mastaba. Mastaba is a rectangular flat room with a roof. Mastaba means Eternal House or House of Stability. It was built during the first dynasty; in the reign of Pharaoh Anedjib. Inscriptions and other archaeological evidence indicate that he associated himself with Pharaoh Anedjib.
Another Pyramid of Djoser Pyramid was built between 2630-2610 BC in the Third Empire. The pyramid and its surrounding structures are generally considered to be the largest structures in the world of stone.
Many famous Egyptian pyramids are found outside Cairo; Giza. Most of the pyramids on the site of Giza are considered to be the largest structures ever built in the time of the Pharaohs.
Number of Pyramids and their location:
Karl Richard Lepsius, an archaeologist, produced the first modern list of pyramids in 1842. This list of pyramids is known as the Lepsius Pyramid List. He brought 67 pyramids to the calculation. Following the discovery by Karl Richard Lepsius, many more pyrmidds are still available, to date. A lot more has been found. By November 2008, Lepsius had identified 118 pyramids. Lepsius had acquired the pyrmidd in 1842, which he called "headless pyrmidds". Headless pyramids are lost due to burial under the desert sand. These headless pyrmidds were rediscovered in 2008. There are many more pyramids that were permanently buried under sandstorms, in need of disclosure.
The most recently discovered pyramid was the Sesheshet in Saqqara, the mother of Pharaoh Dynasty pharaoh Teti, who was announced on 11 November 2008.
All the pyramids of Egypt, with the exception of the small pyramid of the Third Dynasty in Zawyet el-Maiyitin, are located on the west bank of the Nile, and most of them are grouped together in the vast fields of the pyrmidd. The most important of these are listed geographically, from north to south, below.
(1). The Pyramids of the Abu Rawash Site:
Abu Rawash is the site of the most northern pyramids in Egypt (except for the ruins of the first Lepsius pyrmidd), the son-in-law of the Dededre Pyramid, which follows Khufu. It was initially thought that the pyramid was never completed, but the present archaeological agreement is not only complete, but also originally the equivalent of the Pyramid of Menkaure, which would place it among the twelve largest pyramids in Egypt.
(2). Pyramids of Giza Site:
The Giza Plateau is the site of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and "Pyramid of Cheops"), the small Pyramid of Capernaum (or Chephren), the Small Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), and a host of small satellite structures known as the "Pyramids of Que" , and the Great Sphinx of Giza. Of the three, only the Khafra pyramid retains part of its glossy plateau, near its top. The pyrmidd appears larger than the nearby Khufu pyrmidd because of its high altitude, as well as the strong angle of inclination of its construction - in fact, it is so small in both height and volume.
(3). Zawyet-el-Arwan Pyramid:
The site, between Giza and Abusir, is the site of two immaculate pyramids in the Old Kingdom. The owner of the northern structure is believed to be Pharaoh Nebka, while the southern structure, known as the Layer Pyramid, may have been inherited by Pharaoh Dynasty pharaoh Khaba, who succeeded Sekhemkhet. If this definition is correct, Khaba's short rule could describe the seemingly unfinished nature of this step pyramid. Today it stands about 30 feet [17 m] high; if completed, it may exceed 40 meters (130 ft).
(4). Abusir Pyramid:
There are all fourteen pyramids on this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Empire. The rate of construction of the Abusir pyramids is lower than that of the Fourth Amendment - perhaps indicating a decline in imperial power or a powerful economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are made of low-grade limestone.
(5). Saqara Site Pyramids:
The majestic pyrmidds found here include the Djoser Pyramid - often regarded as the world's largest stone-built structure - the Userkaf Pyramid, the Teh Pyramid, and the American Pyramid, in ancient Egypt. And in Saqqara there is the Unas Pyramid, which preserves the pyramid road which is one of the best kept in Egypt. Along with the Userkaf pyrmidd, the pyramid was one of the earliest known restoration efforts by Khaemweset, son of Ramesses II. Saqqara is also the site of an incomplete section of the step-up pyramid of Sekhemkhet who succeeded Djoser, known as the Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that if the pyramid had been completed, it would have been much larger than Djoser.
(6). Pyramids of Dahshur site:
The site is apparently the most important pyramid field in Egypt other than Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was inaccessible due to its military base and unknown to archaeological sites.
The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, better known as the Bram Pyramid, is believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid intended by its builders to be the "smooth-edged" pyramid from the beginning; the previous pyramid in Meidum had smooth sides in its finishing state, but it conceived and was built as a step pyramid, before it was filled with its steps and hidden under a smooth outer shell of coated stones. Like a real building with smooth sides, the Tied Pyramid was partially successful - though unique, attractive to look at; and it is the only major Egyptian monument to preserve most of the outer layer of smooth limestone. It therefore serves as the best example of how the ancient Egyptians intended the appearance of their pyramids. A few miles north of the Pyramid of Bent is the last - and most successful - of the three pyrmidds built during Sneferu's reign; The Red Pyramid is the world's first smooth-walled pyramid. The building is also the third largest pyramid in Egypt, behind the pyramids of Khufu and Khafra in Giza.
And Dahshur is one of the two pyramids built by Amenemhat III, known as the Black Pyramid, and a number of small, highly supported pyramids.
(7). Pyramids of the Mazghuna Site:
Located south of Dahshur, numerous mud pyramids were erected in the area near the end of the central Empire, probably Amenemhat IV and Sobekneferu.
(8). Pyramids of Lisht:
Two great pyramids are known to have been built in Lisht: those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I. The latter are surrounded by the ruins of ten small auxiliary pyramids. One of the pyrmidds below is known to belong to Amenemhat's cousin, Khaba II. The site near the Faiyum oasis, between Dahshur and Meidum, and about 60 miles [100 km] south of Cairo, is believed to be close to the ancient city of Itjtawy (an unknown exact location), which served as Egypt's capital during the Twelfth Empire.
(9). Meidum Pyramid:
The Pyramid of Meidum site is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, and some believe that it was built by Pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. However, that confirmation is uncertain, as no Huni name record was found in this area. It was built as a step pyramid and later transformed into the first smooth "true" pyramid, where the steps were completed and an outer case installed. The pyrmidd experienced several catastrophic falls in ancient and ancient times. Medieval Arab writers describe it as having seven steps, though today only three of these buildings remain intact, giving the building its unique, pyrmidd-like structure.
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