8 types of Estimation and their Practical Uses

Articles > 8 types of Estimation and their Practical Uses


The process of calculating the approximate amount of the project before construction of the work is known as Estimation.Estimation of a project includes the cost of labour, carriage and materials differently 

In case of cost of labour, it is done based on the skills of the labour. There are two types of labours- 

  1. Skilled labours (carpenters, Blacksmith, Masons etc)

  2. Unskilled labours (coolies,bhisti etc)

The carriage cost basically includes the cost of transportation, for eg. Dumpers that are required in the site, bulldozers etc.

The material cost includes the materials required for the project like brick,stone,sand,steel,cement etc.

Apart from the above mentioned costs there are certain other costs which include the water and electricity charges, health care costs of the workers at site, maintenance costs etc.Estimation if not done properly can give an amount which is more than the actual required cost of the project known as Overestimate and sometimes the amount estimated can be less than the actual amount required for the project known as Underestimate.


Purpose of estimation:

              Fig. Purpose of estimation

                  Courtesy: Wikipedia

When a project is started to understand the amount of the materials required and other items required ie. for a proper assessment of the project estimation is required. Before starting of the project the estimation has to be done to know the rough cost of everything. Also in order to access the materials required for the project and to have proper idea about the materials estimation is required.During estimation the time planning of the project is to be prepared, from this a clear knowledge about the duration of the project can be made. Hence estimation is highly necessary for any kind of project, the following are the main purpose of estimation:

  1. To visualise the different aspects of the job
  2. To access amount of materials and cost

  3. Knowing the time limit of the project?

  4. To know the approximate count of labours required for that particular project

  5. Having a proper idea of the construction equipments to be used


Types of Estimation:

  1. Unit Rate Estimate: All the cost of a unit quantity of work such as per km for a highway, per litre for water tank etc are prepared at first and the estimate is prepared by multiplying the cost per corresponding units by the number of units in the structure.

  2. Plinth Area Estimate: Plinth area is the area of external dimensions of the building excluding plinth offset. The estimates are prepared on the basis of the plinth area if various building proposals are to be considered.

  3. Cube Rate Estimate: Estimation is done on the basis of cubic content of the building. The Cubic Content of the building is the Overall area multiplied with the height of the building.

  1. Report

  2. Specifications

  3. Detailed drawings showing planes, elevations, sections etc

  4. Design data calculations

  5. Basics of rate adopted in the estimate

  1. Cost of land

  2. Cost of legal expense between owner and contractor

  3. Cost of main contract of the material and supervision

  4. Contingency 5% for centre work

  5. Engineering fee which includes - cost of preparation of drawing, design, estimate etc and site supervision cost

  6. Fee for water and electricity

  7. Miscellaneous



Due to its immense use,estimation is the first and foremost step in any civil engineering construction because without estimation the project cannot be started and hence the knowledge of proper estimation is highly essential and the various types of estimates as discussed above must be used according to the situation required. Estimation can be defined as the skeleton of the project because without having a proper knowledge about the project, the work cannot be started.


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