# One-dimensional Bars/Springs

Courses > Finite Elements Method > Basics of Finite Elements > One-dimensional Bars/Springs

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## Introduction on One-dimensional Bars/Springs :

A large number of practical problems are governed by the one-dimensional boundary value problem (1D BVP) of the following form:

$\frac{d}{dx}(k(x)\frac{du(x)}{dx})+p(x)u(x)+q(x)=0;\; \: x_0

Since the differential equation is of second order, for a unique solution, there must be at least two specified boundary conditions.

## Concepts and Formulas of One-dimensional Bars/Springs:

### Governing differential equation (ODE):

The general governing differential equation for axial deformation of bars/springs is:

$\frac{d}{dx}(EA(x)\frac{du}{dx})+q(x)=0;\; \: 0

where A(x) is the area of cross section and can vary along the length; E is the elastic modulus; and q(x) is the applied distributed load in the axial direction.

### Types of boundary conditions

The boundary conditions of the following forms may be specified at one or more points:

1- Essential boundary conditions (EBC):

$u=specified$

2- Natural boundary conditions (NBC):

$EA\frac{du}{dx}=F=specified$

### Explicit equations for a two-node linear element:

The interpolation functions are simple linear functions of x. Furthermore, if we assume that k,p, and q are constant over an element, then it is easy to carry out integrations and write explicit formulas for element equations:

the position of element nodes:

$[x_1, x_1+L]$

Interpolation functions (shape functions):

$N^T=(\frac{x_1+L-x}{L} , -\frac{x_1-x}{L})$

and consequently derivatives of shape functions:

$B^T=\frac{dN^T}{dx}=(\frac{-1}{L} , \frac{1}{L})$

Thus, the element stiffness matrix is:

$K=\frac{EA}{L}\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1\\ -1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$

and the explicit equations for a linear element:

$\frac{EA}{L}\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1\\ -1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}\begin{bmatrix} u_1\\ u_2 \end{bmatrix}=\begin{bmatrix} F_1\\ F_2 \end{bmatrix}$

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