Scaffolding Types in ConstructionArticles > Scaffolding Types in Construction
Scaffolding is a provisional structure that is made up of timber or steel. It is a framework on which workers can stand and sit and do construction work that was beyond their reach. It is mainly formed at the time of the new construction of a building, for repairing works, for demolition purposes and so on. It is usually constructed when the height of a structure exceeds 1.5 m or when work is to be done at that height. It should be strong enough to accommodate multiple workers. Sufficient checks should be done to ensure the structural stability of the framework. As the height of the building goes on increasing, the scaffolding is also increased as the workload gets increased.
TYPES OF SCAFFOLDING
There are many types of scaffolding that are used in construction. Each one of them serves different purposes and they are used accordingly. They are -
Brick-layer scaffolding or single scaffolding
Mason scaffolding or double scaffolding
Needle or Cantilever scaffolding
Brick-layer scaffolding or single scaffolding - This type of scaffolding is used for brick ledgers, standards and put logs which are constructed parallel to the wall on which work is done and hence the name. In the case of high rise buildings where scaffolding is built at large vertical distances, braces are fastened for better stability and support for scaffolding. With the use of rope lashing, braces are fitted cross diagonally with the standards.
Single scaffolding consists of being done, for a short period. It is kept at a distance of 1.2 meters from the wall. Standards are a series of vertical components that are made up of bamboo and are fixed gently into the ground, parallel to the wall that is under construction. The distance between the standards ranges from 2 meters to 2.5 meters. These standards are joined by ledgers, which are horizontal components, at an upright distance of 1.2 meters to 1.5 meters.
Fig 1: Single scaffolding
Mason scaffolding or double scaffolding - This type of scaffolding is used for stone masonry as drilling holes through such walls is difficult. It is strong in a framework and provides better stability to the structure. It features two rows of standards that are separated by ledgers to give better support. The first row of standards is fixed near the wall while the second row of the standard is fixed slightly far from the wall at a distance of 1.5 meters from the first row. Transoms are placed on the ledgers along with cross braces to make the scaffolding stronger and longer-lasting.
Fig 2: Double Scaffolding
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Suspended scaffolding - This type of scaffolding is mainly used for painting and repairing works. The working platform is in a suspended position that is hung with ropes or chains and this platform can be moved vertically across different storeys in a vertical position.
Fig 3: Suspended scaffolding
Needle or Cantilever scaffolding - Here the standards are supported by a series of needles and these needles are extracted through the holes in the wall. Such scaffolding is constructed when - the ground is not able to support stands, the upper part of the wall is being constructed and when the ground is nearer to the wall and is being constructed. It can be of two types - single and double. The single type comprises of standards that are supported on a sequence of needles and the double type comprises of needles and projecting beams that are swanked into the floor through the openings.
Fig 4: Cantilever scaffolding
Patented scaffolding - This type of scaffolding is fitted with frames, special couplings and many more. They do not need to be made as they are easily available in built form in the market. Also, steel is widely in its production. The working platform is held on top of brackets that can be adjusted at the required height.
Fig 5: Patented scaffolding
Kwikstage scaffolding - This type of scaffolding is very easy to build and the parts can be detached very quickly as and when the need arises. It is very simple to erect and is used by Builders working on small and big projects. The patented Kwikstage modular system can be constructed at any desirable height with a strong and safe interlocking system.
Fig 6: Kwikstage scaffolding
Trestle scaffolding - Such scaffolding is comprised of movable ladders that support the working platform. Here standards and putlogs are not required and they are very mobile. It is used for repairing and painting works that are enclosed in a room. Also, it is used up to a height of 5 meters.
Fig 7:Trestle scaffolding
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Steel scaffolding - Such scaffolding is made from steel tubes that are 1.5 inches to 2.5 inches in diameter and are connected by steel fittings or couplers. Here the standards are tied up on square or round steel plates that are known as base plates, by the process of welding instead of attaching them to the ground. Between every two standards, there is a gap of 2.5 meters to 3 meters. Apart from this, it is simple to build as well as to detach. Also, it provides great durability and it has excellent fire resistance properties. It is mostly used in high rise buildings as well as in building flyovers that are funded by the government. It offers good protection to workers because of its strength.
Fig 8: Steel scaffolding
COURTESY: WAY BUILDER.NET
Every scaffolding has different advantages as well as disadvantages. Choices are made based on criterion that fulfill the purpose of construction works. Apart from maintaining structural stability and safety, the cost is also one such criteria that is looked upon for residential purposes. In government projects, funding is done by higher authorities so cost is not much of a problem. Moreover, advancements are being made to strengthen the structure as well as to reduce the cost. Usually, timber or steel is disposed of by the workers after shuttering works. So, innovative ideas are enforced nowadays to reuse timber or steel for other construction purposes.
Turbo Scaffolding, “8 Top Scaffolding Types & Their Uses”- https://www.turboscaffolding.com.au/blog/scaffolding-types-with-their-uses/
Cement concrete.org, “Types of Scaffolding Used in Construction and Parts”- https://cementconcrete.org/buildings/types-of-scaffolding-used-in-construction-parts/2120/
Skel Scaff, “Different Types of Scaffolding”- https://www.skelscaff.com.au/different-types-scaffolding/
Wikipedia, “Scaffolding”- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaffolding
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