Immediate settlement results from distortion of soil mass caused by a change in total stress. For general definitions, remarks and types of settlement refer to Settlement types, definitions, and general equation article.
The settlement of the corner of a rectangular base of dimensions B' x L' on the surface of an elastic half-space can be computed from an equation from Theory of Elasticity as follows:
q0 = intensity of contact pressure in units of Es
B' = least lateral dimension of contributing base area in units of Si
I1 and I2 = influence factors, which depend on L'/B', thickness of stratum H. Poisson's ratio, and base embedment depth D
Es = average modulus of elasticity of soil layer
Influence factors can be computed using:
IF = embedment (or depth) factor which is equal to or less than 1.0 (for footings on the ground IF = 1.0)
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