# Introduction to Surveying

Courses > Surveying > Instruments and Distance Measurements > Introduction to Surveying

# What is Surveying?

Surveying is an art of determining relative positions of points on, above or below the surface of earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevation.

# Why Civil Engineers Need to Know Surveying?

• All engineering projects must begin by acquiring accurate field data.
• Civil engineering projects typically require data about the site conditions and other data in the form of topographic mapping from which base site plans are prepared.

The primary goal of provided surveying materials in this website is to acquaint civil engineering students with the BASIC surveying tools and techniques needed to collect field data.

# Applications of Surveying

Uses of surveying is to prepare maps viz. engineeering map, cadastral map, photographical map, contour map, militarymap, geological map, archeological map etc.

# Primary divisions of surveying

### Plane Surveying

1. Curvature of earth is not considered
2. Line joining any 2 points is considered straight.
3. Triangles formed by 3 poits are considered plane.
4. It is carried out for areas less than 250 sq.km.

### Geodotic Surveying

1. Curvature of earth is considered
2. Line joining 2 points is taken as curved line
3. Triansles formed by 3 points are considered curved triansgles
4. It is done for areas exceeding 250 sq.km

# Classification of Surveying

### Based on Instruments

1. Chain Surveying
2. Compass Surveying
3. Plane Table Surveying
4. Theodolite Surveying
5. Tachemetric Surveying

### Based on Methods

1. Triangular Surveying
2. Traverse Surveying

### Based on Objects

1. Geological Surveying
2. Mine Surveying
3. Archaeological Surveying
4. Military Surveying

### 1. Land Surveying

• Topographical Surveying
• City Survey
• Engineering Survey

2. Marine Surveying

3. Astronomical Surveying

# Units

### English units

• Length: foot and decimals, rod
• Area: square foot, square yard, acre (large area)
• Volume: cubic foot, cubic yard
• Angle: degree, min, sec, radian

### Metric units (International system units, SI units)

• Length: meter
• Area: square meter, hectare (large area)
• Volume: cubic meter
• Angle: degree, min, second, radian

### Unit Conversions

• 1 foot = 12 inches
• 1 yard = 3 feet
• 1 meter = 39.37 inches or 3.28 feet
• 1 inch = 2.54 cm
• 1 rod = 1 pole = 1 perch = 16.5 ft
• 1 Gunter’s chain = 66ft = 4 rods = 100links
• 1 mile = 5280 ft = 80 Gunter’s chain
• 1 fathom = 6 ft
• 1 nautical mile = 6076.12 ft
• 1 acre = 43,560 ft2
• 1 hectare = 2.471 acres
• 1 hectare = 10,000 m2
• 1˚ = 1/360 circle (angle subtended by 1/360 of the circumference of a circle )
• 1˚ = 60 min
• 1 min = 60 sec
• 1 grad = 1/400 circle (angle subtended by 1/400 of the circumference of a circle )
• 1 grad = 100 min
• 1 min = 100 sec

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