Introduction to Surveying

Courses > Surveying > Instruments and Distance Measurements > Introduction to Surveying

What is Surveying?

Surveying is an art of determining relative positions of points on, above or below the surface of earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevation.

Why Civil Engineers Need to Know Surveying?

The primary goal of provided surveying materials in this website is to acquaint civil engineering students with the BASIC surveying tools and techniques needed to collect field datasmiley.

Applications of Surveying

Uses of surveying is to prepare maps viz. engineeering map, cadastral map, photographical map, contour map, militarymap, geological map, archeological map etc.

Primary divisions of surveying

Plane Surveying

  1. Curvature of earth is not considered
  2. Line joining any 2 points is considered straight.
  3. Triangles formed by 3 poits are considered plane.
  4. It is carried out for areas less than 250

Geodotic Surveying

  1. Curvature of earth is considered
  2. Line joining 2 points is taken as curved line
  3. Triansles formed by 3 points are considered curved triansgles
  4. It is done for areas exceeding 250



Classification of Surveying

Based on Instruments

  1. Chain Surveying
  2. Compass Surveying
  3. Plane Table Surveying
  4. Theodolite Surveying
  5. Tachemetric Surveying

Based on Methods

  1. Triangular Surveying
  2. Traverse Surveying

Based on Objects

  1. Geological Surveying
  2. Mine Surveying
  3. Archaeological Surveying
  4. Military Surveying

Based on Nature of Field

       1. Land Surveying

       2. Marine Surveying

       3. Astronomical Surveying


Measurement Units

English units

Metric units (International system units, SI units)

Unit Conversions

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