In Civil Engineering and more specifically Geotechnical Engineering there are many instances where the values of engineering parameters are cannot be obtained from the testings. Thus, typical values of these parameters will be used. In this article typical values and useful relationships of many important engineering parameters used in Civil Engineering and Geotechnical Engineering are given.

See the full table of typical values of cohesive intercept "C" of soils here

See the full table of typical values of friction angle "φ" of soils here

C / 100 = (F - 32) / 180 = (K - 273) / 100 = (R - 492) / 180

where

C = Celsius degree

F = Fahrenheit degree

K = Kelvin degree

R = Rankine scale

0.1 kgf/cm^{2} / m = 0.433 psi/ft = 0.42 psi/m = 9.81 kPa/m

9.806 m/s^{2} = 32.174 ft/s^{2}

1000 kg/m^{3} = 1.0 kg/dm^{3} = 1.0 g/cm^{3} = 62.4 pcf = 8.34 lb/gal = 350 lb/bbl

1 atmosphere = 2116.2166236739 pounds per square foot (psf) = 14.696 pounds per square inch (psi) = 101,325 N/m^{2} (Pa) (equivalent to 760 mmHg (torr))

Sands: 115 ~ 135 pcf ( 18 ~ 21 kN/m^{3} up to 22 kN/m^{3} with some gravel content)

Clays: 90 ~ 120 pcf (14 ~ 19 kN/m^{3})

e_{min} = 0.38 ~ 0.5

e_{max} = 0.75 ~ 1.0

D_{R} (%) |
Qualitative assessment of degree of compactness |
---|---|

0 - 15 | Very Loose |

15 - 35 | Loose |

35 - 65 | Medium |

65 - 85 | Dense |

85 - 100 | Very Dense |

K_{0,NC} = 0.38 ~ 0.5 in sands

K_{0,NC} = 0.5 ~ 0.75 in clays

From e = 2 (extremely soft, weak clays) to e = 0.7 (very stiff clays). There are extreme examples of softer clays (with e as high as 5) and stiffer clays.

Silica sands: 28 ~ 36

Clays: 15 ~ 30

As low as 5-7 degrees for smectites. For low confining stress levels and/or large sand content it can be as high as critical-state friction angle.

Drained: v = 0.1 ~ 0.3

Undrained: v = 0.5

Soil Type | Range of Gs |
---|---|

Sand | 2.63 - 2.67 |

Silts | 2.65 - 2.70 |

Clay and silty clay | 2.67 - 2.9 |

Organic soil | less than 2 |

LL = Liquid Limit = 30% ~ 160% for clays

PL = Plastic Limit = 20% ~ 50%

C_{s}/C_{c} = 0.1 ~ 0.2

c_{v} = 10^{-8 }to 5 x 10^{-7} m^{2}/s

C_{a}/C_{c} = 0.02 ~ 0.07 (lower values for shale and mudstone; higher values for peat)

Soil | K |
---|---|

Gravel | 10^{-3} to 1 m/s |

Sand | 10^{-7} to 10^{-2} m/s |

Silt | 10^{-9} to 10^{-5} m/s |

Clay | 10^{-13} to 10^{-9} ms |

- Cohesion Intercept of Soils + Typical Values
- Specific Gravity of Soils
- What is Geotechnical Engineering? Subtopics, Salaries, Books, Journals, ...
- Solution of Soil Compaction Check Via The Voids Ratio
- Solution of Unit Weight and Its Conversion from Metric Units to SI and US Units.

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