Four types of Civil Engineering Drawings

Articles > Four types of Civil Engineering Drawings

What is the Engineering Drawings:
Engineering drawings, which are also known as the blueprints, prints, manufacturing prints, manufacturing blueprints, mechanical drawings, and manufacturing prints, are the outlines of complete and rich information that explains all information, essentials, and requirements, which are needed to manufacture a product or items like buildings, bridges, roads, canals, dams, factories, playgrounds, and seaports. Engineering drawing is an essential means of communication among civil engineers and builders and contractors. Engineers and draftsmen interpret the engineering project employing the engineering drawings. Civil engineers explain the details about each stage of a building project starting from demanding tenders ending after the work. Drafting is the best and the only way to prepare a concise record of a project. Engineering drawing is usually the beginning point to the endpoint in a continuous series of events, which ultimately results in the preparation, production, manufacture, or construction of a construction project. In this article, we will be discussing the types of engineering drawings used all through the project. The types of drawings associated with each stage of a construction project are briefly described in the following paragraphs. There are four fundamental drawings of a civil engineering project, namely; the tender drawing, the contract drawing, the working drawing, and the complete drawing. Drawing associated with each stage interprets the complete procedural work of that stage. The function and evaluation of each stage can not be mingled with the others, therefore, it is very compulsory to discuss and explain each stage with a specific drawing. Two or more than two drawings can not be prepared in a consolidated form. In simple projects, the working drawing may follow the tender and the contract drawing, but in the complex and large projects, the working drawings usually do not follow the previous two drawings. Several variations are brought about in the tender and contract drawing while drawing a working procedure. However, the completion drawing will, on all accounts, differ from the previous three drawings, due to some unforeseen conditions and unprecedented events that happened during the working procedure. Minor variations in the previous drawings will also be recorded in the final/completion drawings. 

1. Tender Drawings:
Preparation of a tender drawing is the earliest phase of a building process. Tenders are demanded by the project commissioner and are used by the contractors or the brokers for contractors for developing bids. Different contractors offer their tenders from having the total cost of the construction work. At least two contractors deposit their tender documents, in which they can price the construction work as per their interest. The project commissioner signs the contract with the lowest pricing contractor. In this phase the contractors compete with one another, keeping in view their best interest. The competition among the contractors gives many benefits to the owner. The lowest pricing point is chosen by the owner, and work orders are released to start construction work. 

2. Contract Drawings:
Sudden after the completion of tender drawings, the engineers can proceed to a detailed design of the project. Some basic and necessary modifications based on the budget and constructional method are made by the engineers/project commissioner, after having evaluated the contractor's bid. This process is drafted in the form of drawings and reports by the engineers. The report and drawing of the engineer are included in the documents, which are prepared for the legally binding contract between the contractor and the project's commissioner. The contract drawing and the tender drawing may be the same if there has been no change in the contractor's bid. In case of an alternate proposal (if accepted by the project commissioner), new additional will be prepared according to the accepted tender proposals and alternatives. 
The contract drawings are kept for long-term record, therefore, the book of contract drawing is kept with safety and protection. The book is covered with a clothing sheet for protection. 

3. Working Drawings:
Unlike the tender and the contract drawings, the working layout/drawings are generally more detailed. The plans that inform the actual work and construction of a structure/building or another project. Working drawings are about the engineer's final decisions. For a simple and straight forward project, the working drawing may be similar to the tender and the contract drawings to a large extent. However, for a complex and large project, the workings drawings are like an exegesis of the tender and the contract drawing. The working drawings are more detailed than the previous drawings. The finer design and construction details in the form of notes and instructions are included in the working drawing. 
4. Completion Drawings:
These are the final set of drawings made at the end of the construction work. These drawings are prepared for the sake of recording the accomplishment of the project. This is a type of acknowledgment or certificate for the completion of work. 
During the course of any given project, a lot of ad hoc amendments are likely to have been made that deviate from the working drawings. These amendments/alterations, additions, deductions in the previous drawings may occur due to unforeseen site conditions, unprecedented events, and budgetary issues. All these variations are completed report in the completion drawing, therefore these drawings are also known as the "Record Drawings", or "As-built Drawings". 

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