Different types of masonryArticles > Different types of masonry
Masonry means the construction of walls, stairs, and pillars of a building, bridge, dam, canal, barrage, and abutments. Masonry work is merely concerned with the construction of a vertical structure. The common masonry materials are bricks, granite stone, marble, limestone, concrete blocks, glass blocks, adobe, and cast stone. The masonry material is bonded by means of mortar of cement, lime-stone, and clay. There are several types of masonry based on the type of material, and method of construction. Following are the most common types of masonry,
Types of Masonry:
01. Stone Masonry: In stone masonry, stones of different types, like marble, granite, sandstone, limestone, and cast stones are used to construct the walls. The best bonding material for stone masonry is the mortar of cement and limestone-sand. The durability of a stone is higher than that of bricks and blocks. However, some of the stones have heavyweight. In a building of multi-story, stones like granite are not recommended, due to their heavy weight.
02. Brick Masonry: Bricks are of different types, like clay bricks, kiln burnt bricks, fly-ash bricks, concrete bricks, and engineering bricks. Among these types of bricks, the most common and often recommended bricks are the kiln bricks. The durability and cost affordability of these bricks is better than other types of bricks. These bricks are comparatively lighter than the stones like granite, marble, sandstone, and cast stones. The masonry work of the bricks is easier and faster then that of other masonry materials.
03. Block Masonry: Blocks are made up of concrete. The liquid concrete is poured into a frame-chamber and compressed. The compression increases the compaction and strength of the block. Blocks are of different types, like hollow concrete blocks, concrete stretcher blocks, concrete corner blocks, concrete pillar blocks, etc. Each type of block is used as per the requirement.
04. Concrete Bags Masonry: A bagged concrete masonry is very easy and less time-consuming. It also does not require any specific skilled labor for carrying out the construction. The plastic fiber bags filled with the concrete material are compiled upon one another, and afterward, the water is poured on the bags of the concrete to prevent drying soon. On drying and hardening, the concrete of all the bags gets stuck with one another.
05. Gabion Masonry: A gabion wall is a retaining wall. Mostly a gabion wall is used in holding behind the soil, water, other material. A gabion wall consists of stones piled upon one another and are tied with wires. The wire does not allow the stones to dismantle. Most of the gabion walls are not vertically stood, but rather they are slope back-side, so that the stones may not exert pressure (caused by soil) on the wires.
06. Composite Masonry: A composite masonry is a type of masonry work carried out with two or more than two building units or materials. For example, we can install veneer sheathing on the walls constructed with bricks or blocks. Sometimes the hollow blocks are covered with a thin layer of brick masonry. Composite masonry is carried out for strengthening and providing durability to the structure. However, the cost of the construction gets higher, then the single-unit masonry. In case of preventing the building from weathering and chemical and water attack, the walls are covered with stone, marble, and veneer sheathing.
07. Reinforced Masonry: When steel rods or cables are placed in the concrete structure, it is called a reinforced masonry. A reinforced masonry cost, a bit, higher, but the strength of such types of masonry is invincible. The labor cost and the time saving is also appreciated in this type of masonry.
08. Veneer Masonry: Veneers are flat panels of wood, plastic or fiber. Walls constructed with Masonry veneer consist of a single non-structural external layer of masonry, typically made of brick, stone or manufactured stone. Masonry veneer can have an air space behind it and is technically called "anchored veneer". A masonry veneer attached directly to the backing is called an "adhered veneer".
Types of Masonry based on bonding material.
01. Masonry in cement Mortar: Masonry of any construction unit with a bonding material of cement mortar is known as the “Cement Mortar Masonry”. A cement mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and water. The cost of this type of masonry depends on the type of cement used in the preparation of the mortar. OPC is the most commonly used cement in almost all types of construction. PPC is cement, which is resistant to a water attack. SRP cement, as the name mentions, is a Sulfate Resisting Cement. SRP is used in areas where there are very frequent attacks of sulfate and other types of chemicals. In seashore building, the use of PPC and SRP is very common, while in a dry environment, OPC is used.
02. Masonry in lime Mortar: Limestone mortar is made up of lime of any kind (quick lime, slaked lime, fat lime, or hydraulic lime) mixed with sand and water. Lime mortar masonry is generally carried out in reconditioning the old buildings. Application of lime mortar is more successful on the soft and vulnerable construction units, like old bricks, weathered walls, and depreciated structures.
03. Masonry in mud Mortar: Masonry with mud mortar is the cheapest way of construction. Mud is mixed with wheat or rice straws, to provide the effect of reinforcement. The mud/ clay mortar is applied on the dry (un-watered) bricks, stones, and blocks. Note that the mud mortar is more successful on bricks than granite or other stoned units of construction.
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