13 Types of CementsArticles > 13 Types of Cements
What is Cement:
Cement is the fundamental material of construction, architecture, and civil engineering works. Cement is the binding material that binds the aggregate and reinforcing materials together very strongly. In the old ages, clay was used as the only binding material in construction. In old days the clay was mixed with water and stirred for several days to strengthen its bonding and adhesion. But with the advent of scientific means and technology, newer and newer binding materials were discovered and prepared. Cement is the best binding material used in construction. There are several types of cement, some of the most important types of cement are being discussed, here in the following lines.
All types of cement are classified into two categories: Hydraulic Cement and Non-Hydraulic Cement. Hydraulic cement hardens by hydration in the presence of water, while non-hydraulic cement is those which harden without the presence of water. However, keeping in view the composition of different types of cement, they are classified into the following 13 types. These 13 types of cement are well explained in the below headings.
Types of Cement:
- Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC):
- Portland Pozzalana Cement (PPC):
- Rapid Hardening Cement:
- Extra Rapid Hardening Cement:
- Low Heat Cement:
- Sulphate Resisting Cement:
- Blast Furnace Slag Cement:
- High Alumina Cement:
- White Cement:
- Air Entraining Cement:
- Expansive Cement:
- Hydrophobic Cement:
- Colored Cement:
(1). Ordinary Portland Cement:
OPC, also known as Ordinary Cement is the most common type of cement that is manufactured and used all over the world. This type of cement is manufactured from four components: Tricalcium Silicate (3CaO · SiO2), ), tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3), dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2, and a tetra-calcium aluminoferrite (4CaO ·Al2O3Fe2O3). It is used in all-purpose manufacturing, like concrete, mortar, and plaster. OPC is mixed with aggregate and sand to prepare concrete. If the OPC is mixed with only sand, then the mixture is used for the purpose of mortar and plaster.
(2). PPC or Portland Pozzolana Cement:
Pozzolana is a type of volcanic ash that is used for mortar, concrete, and plaster purposes. This type of cement can be manufactured by mixing clinker of natural pozzolana with OPC cement. Chemical composition of pozzolana cement is: Silicon Dioxide 21%, Al2O3 2.59%, SO3 2.41 %, CaO 57.02%, MgO 2.71%, Fe2O3 .65%.
(3). Rapid Hardening Cement:
A rapid hardening portland cement composed of 40 to 60 percent (by weight) of 11CaO. 7A12 O3. CaF2 phase, and 30 to 50 percent of 3CaO. SiO2 solid solution phase, as the main mineral composition, thereof and a process for manufacturing it. This type of cement is advantageous for many reasons. For example:
- It shrinks very little on drying, as most of its water is used for the hydration process.
- It had high durability and requires less repairing, as it is very resistant to chemical attack like that of Sulfate.
- It saves a lot of time. The saving of time resultantly saves money.
- As compared to OPC, it requires less curing time.
- It is environmentally friendly. The production procedure produces less amount of Carbon Dioxide as compared to that of OPC.
- The manufacturing process of RHC is economical.
(4). High Alumina Cement:
It is used in concrete structures that are subjected to very high temperatures, frost, and acidic action. Construction of workshops, refractory, foundries, and other glass factories is done by means of this type of cement. High Alumina cement is obtained by mixing calcining bauxite (it’s an aluminum ore) and ordinary lime with clinker during the manufacture of OPC. In which the total amount of alumina content should not be lesser than 32% and it should maintain the ratio by weight of alumina to the lime between 0.85 to 1.30.
(5). White Cement:
White cement is used in decorative work, traffic barriers, tile grouts, roof tiles, swimming pools, terrazzo surfaces, and patching material. White cement is quite similar to Ordinary Portland Cement except for color. Amounts of iron oxide and manganese oxide are low in White Cement. It is expensive than OPC so not economical for ordinary work.
(6). Expansive Cement:
This type of cement is used to overcome the shrinkage loss of structure during hydration. During hydration and hardening, the volume of the structure expands.
(7). Hydrophobic Cement:
Hydrophobic Cement is used in the construction of dams, spillways, canal walls, and other types of structures, which are subject to water and moisture. To resist the hydration process in the transportation or storage stage, clinkers are ground with water repellent film substance such as Oleic Acid or Stearic Acid. These chemicals form a layer on the cement particle and do not allow water to mix and start the hydration process. When cement and aggregate are thoroughly mixed in the mixer, protective layers break and start normal hydration with some air-entrainment which increases workability.
(8). Sulfate resisting Cement:
Sulfate resisting cement is used in the construction of building in contact with soil or groundwater having a large quantity of sulfate salt. It is also used in concrete surfaces subjected to alternate wetting and drying such as building foundations, bridge abutments, and piers. This type of cement is also used in effluent treatment plants, chimneys, chemical industries, buildings of coastal areas, drainage work, sumps, cooling towers, coastal protective works.
Due to having a lower percentage of Tricalcium aluminate, the production of calcium sulpho-aluminate gets reduced, therefore it is successful in resisting sulfate attacks in concrete to resist sulfate attacks in concrete.
(9). Colored Cement:
Suitable colored pigments are added with the Ordinary Portland Cement to prepare colored cement. 5 to 10 % of desired colored pigments are added to the cement. The purpose of the colored cement is only decorative.
(10). Air Entraining Cement:
Air entrainment means the intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in the structure to increase the resistance of the cement to the frost action, fire, and other similar effects. Creating tiny air bubbles in the structure is due to the quality of the special type of Air Entraining Cement. This cement is produced by grinding small gas entraining materials with cement by adding some resinous materials e.g. vinsol resin to ordinary portland cement.
When the water in concrete gets frizzed due to low temperature, it expands. When air-entraining cement, the air voids in concrete provides space for water to expand without cracking concrete. This type of cement is not reasonable for concrete as it does not provide strength to the structure. It is used in areas where the temperature is extremely low. It is resistant to sulfate attack.
(11). Low Heat Cement:
It is a spatial type of cement which produces low heat of hydration during the setting. Some chemical composition of Ordinary Portland Cement is modified to reduce the heat of hydration. The chemical composition of low heat cement:
- A low percentage (5%) of tricalcium aluminate (C3A)
- A higher percentage (46%) of declaiming silicate (C2S).
This type of cement is used for the construction of the dam’s large footing, large raft slabs, and wind turbine plinths, and chemical plants.
(12). Quick Hardening Cement:
It is also known as extra-hardening cement quick-setting cement. This type of cement needs a very short period of time for setting ranging from 5 minutes to 30 minutes. This type of cement is made from Clinker and 1-3 percent Aluminum Sulfate. It is used in underwater construction, rainy and cold weather, the very high temperature where water evaporates very easily, construction of anchoring or rock bolt mining and tunneling.
(13). Blast Furnace Slag Cement:
The Blast Furnace Cement is made by integrating the granulated blast furnace slag and Portland cement clinker. A maximum of 65 percent of the mixture could be comprised of blast furnace slag. This type of cement is important because of its high resistance to sulfate. Therefore, construction in seawater is done by means of Blast Furnace Slag Cement.
- SRPC (cement), chemical composition, pros and cons of SRPC.
- Types of construction and decorative materials in civil engineering
- Computer Aided Design of Concrete Mix Proportioning (IS 10262:2009)
- IS Codes Complete List for Civil Engineers