7 Types of roads on the basis of material used

Articles > 7 Types of roads on the basis of material used


A road is a pathway or route from one place to another. A road gives transit to the traffic escorting from one place and reaching another place. The road is the primitive tools of communication and transportation used by the human being. In the beginning, the roads/paths came into the form automatically as a result of the walking of humans and their cattle. The frequent use of a particular way became road in the old age. But with the course of time, the man started paving his ways by himself for his convenience. Since then the roads are going through a continuous process of evolution. Now that, the roads are so advance that the journey of months converted into hours, and that of hours into minutes. There are many types of roads according to their structure and use, but in this article, we are trying to classify the road on the basis of material used.

(1). Earthen Road:

Earthen roads are very common in the countryside and few traffic areas. These roads are constructed by means of putting soil with fine gravels in the pathway to give compaction to the road. These roads are very successful in areas where there is a low ratio of rainfall. While in the areas of high rainfall, these roads become troublesome. These roads are successful in the sandy and stony areas, where the rainwater does not mix with soil to form mud.

(2). Gravel Road:

Like Earthen road the gravel road is also included in the category of unpaved roads. Like the earthen road, the gravel is scattered in the way/ or path of the road. The top of the road is enriched with gravels. The gravels do not allow the rainwater to form mud. These types of roads are also constructed in rural countryside areas. These roads are very cheap, easy, and less time-consuming. These roads do not need any engineering skills. These roads can be built by ordinary labor.

(3). Murrum Road:

A murrum soil is a mixture of soil, sand and gravels, and concrete. The construction of these roads is quite similar to the above mentioned, the Earthen and the Gravel Road, but are different on the basis of material used in their construction.

(4). Kankar Road:

Kankar is the impure form of line stone. Kankar gravels, like in the Murrum and Gravel Roads, are scattered in way. Kankar roads are very common in the areas where limestone is easily and cheaply available. These roads, if compared to the paved roads, are low-quality roads. Limestone gets easily mixed with rainwater and form mud, which can put the traffic in trouble.

(5). WBM Road:

WBM stands for Water Bound Macadam. WBM roads are constructed with a stone border. The border is filled with sand mixed with soil and very fine gravel called “Screening”. The stone borders are bonded tightly with the help of screening. As the top wearing surface of this type of road consists of stone gravel and border, therefore the formation of mud is less likely in these types of roads. The stone border is compacted by the rolling process. Water is poured on the WBM during the rolling process. This type of road is very successful and compacted, especially in rainy areas.

(6). Bitumen Road:

Bitumen Road, also called Asphalt road is a very smooth and soundless road. This type of road is a masterpiece of civil engineering. The construction of this road goes through a number of complex phases. The first phase of this road is “Preparation of Base Course”. In this phase, the irregular landscape is graded with the help of a grader machine. The landscape is once leveled, then, murrum consisting of fine gravels and soil is placed on the road. This layer is compacted by means of rollers and compactors. After compacting it well, a layer of larger border of stone is placed. The spaces of the border are filled with screening. Again the rolling work is conducted. Water is thrown all through this process. Now the second phase starts. The second phase of the construction of the road is the Placement of a Bituminous coat. The hot and molten bituminous is showered on the border filled with screening. The third phase of the construction starts with the Placement of a bituminous mix. The bituminous mixed consists of concrete mixed with bitumen. This layer is of 3 to 5 inches thickness. The layer of the bituminous mix is placed either by machines or by hands.

The fourth phase of the construction of this type of road starts and ends at rolling work. The rolling work is conducted by a roller machine. The purpose of rolling is to compact the road.

(7). Concrete Road:

Concrete Road is constructed with the help of concrete made up of cement, and stone gravels. This road is very durable and strong. But the disadvantage of this road is, it does not provide friction between the road surface and the tires of the vehicle. This type of work is generally done in streets and small size projects.

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