Introduction on Construction Site Layout Planning Elements :
Most construction sites that run into trouble do so for reasons related to managerial factors rather than because of technical problems. The site-based management can make significant improvements in the cost and time savings during the construction process without involving a mass of additional work. The role of site managers is to control and maintain work performance and then taking actions to rectify situations where performance is unsatisfactory.
Concepts and Formulas of Construction Site Layout Planning Elements:
A well-planned site including all temporary facilities and utilities lead to: 1) increasing productivity and safety, 2) reducing area(s) needed for temporary construction, and 3) maximizing utilization. The following points should be considered in good site layout
Fire prevention: Fire is a major cause of damage on construction sites. So that, fire extinguishers are basic requirements on a construction project.
Medical services: On construction project a first aid kit is a must. In remote projects a well-equipped medical room with a doctor and nurse is important.
Construction safety clothing: Basic safety supplies like safety shoes, hard hats, gloves, and goggles must be used by workers.
Easy accessibility will keep the morale of the equipment and vehicle drivers high, minimize the chance of accidents, and save time in maneuvering to arrive at and leave the project. In case of large projects, proper planning is required to layout the roads leading from the nearest highway. Internal roads are necessary for easy flow of work. Also, Parking Lots are provided for the owner, office, and craft personnel, but this facility must be planned where space does exist.
Site map: It should locate details of the project, and displayed in the office of the site superintendent or project manager and posted at the entrance gate.
Traffic regulatory signs: For large projects, traffic regulatory signs help in guiding the traffic on the site and avoid accidents to a considerable extent.
Display of labor relations’ policy and safety rules: This will help in eliminating disputes between labor and management.
Emergency routes and underground services: It is important to display the emergency escape routes on every floor as the building progresses. Locations of underground services should be marked to prevent its damage.
Entrance: It is necessary to have a proper guard entrance to the site provided by a booth. Also, it is necessary to keep track of all visitors to the project.
Lighting: It is necessary to have a standby generator to maintain site lighting.
Fencing: The boundary should be fenced off from a security point of view.
On large construction projects, it is necessary to provide camp accommodation for all type of staff involved in the project.
The offices should be close together, close to the site, and in a safe area. Also, provide the offices with proper office equipment. The offices at the site may include job office, general contractor office, and sub-contractors and consultants Offices.
Water Supply and Sanitation:
It is necessary to have water and toilet facilities in convenient locations to accommodate the work force.
One third or more of all construction operations can be classified as material handling. The use of proper equipment for material handling and advance planning for minimizing multiple handling will result in direct cost and time savings.
Storage and site cleaning:
It is necessary to plan and reserve storage areas for materials so that multiple movement of material is avoided.
Laydown areas: Areas reserved for storage of large materials and equipment and it can be short-term or long-term.
Warehouses: They are sheltered storage facilities where materials are stored until they have disbursed to the job.
Material staging areas: They used when materials are stored near the work on a short-term basis. They are generally as close to work as possible.
Site cleaning: It is necessary at a work place and especially where the extent of debris produced is high. Regular disposal of debris is necessary.
Craft change-houses provide sheltered space for craft personnel to change and store clothes, wash, and rest during waiting periods.
Batch plant and Fabrication Shops:
Batch plants are provided on projects where it is more economical to produce concrete on site than to buy a ready mix. Aggregate storage piles, cement silos, and admixture tanks will accompany an on-site batch plant. Shops are used where materials and equipment are fabricated on site. This includes electrical, mechanical, carpentry, and paint shops. Also, testing shops used to house the necessary testing equipment and personnel for the project.